Contact: Betsy Dodge

Undergraduate Registrar

Michigan Engineering

Student Affairs

(734) 647-7117

145A Chrysler

100 Level Courses

SPACE 101 (ASTRO 183). Rocket Science
Prerequisite: None. (3 credits)
An introduction to the science of space and space exploration. Topics covered include history of spaceflight, rockets, orbits, the space environment, satellites, remote sensing and the future human presence in space. The mathematics will be at the level of algebra and trigonometry.

CLIMATE 102 (EARTH 122) (ENVIRON 102). Extreme Weather
Prerequisite: None. (3 credits)
This course provides an introduction to the physics of extreme weather events. The course uses examples of the thunderstorms, jet stream, floods, lake-effect snow storms, lightning, thunder, hail, hurricanes and tornadoes to illustrate the physical laws governing the atmosphere. Participants apply these principles in hands-on storm forecasting and weather analysis assignments.

SPACE 103.  Intro Space Weather
Prerequisite: None. (3 credits)
"Space weather" is an emerging discipline of space science that studies the conditions in space that impact society and Earth's technological systems. Space weather is a consequence of the behavior of the sun, the nature of Earth's magnetic field and atmosphere, and our location in the solar system.

CLIMATE 105 (Chemistry 105) (ENSCEN 105) (ENVIRON 105). Our Changing Atmosphere
Prerequisite: None. (3 credits)
The science of the greenhouse effect, stratospheric ozone depletion, polar ozone holes and urban smog. These phenomena and their possible consequences are discussed, along with the properties and behavior of the atmosphere and its interactions with other components of the environment.

CLIMATE 110 (SPACE 110). Climate and Space Science and Engineering Seminar 
Prerequisite: None. (1 credit) 
Seminars by noted speakers, faculty and research scientists, designed to acquaint undergraduates with contemporary science and engineering problems, technologies and broader issues in the global climate and space sciences. Technical communication assignments include written and/or oral reports based upon the seminars.

CLIMATE 171 (Biology 110) (Univ Course 110) (EARTH 171). Introduction to Global Change-Part I
Prerequisite: None. (4 credits)
The course will consider the evolution of the universe, the Earth and its environments and the evolution of living organisms. Consideration will be given to fundamental processes by which organisms grow and reproduce, how they interact with their environments and the distribution of major groups of organisms on earth.

CLIMATE 172 (Univ Course 111) (EARTH 172) (SNRE 172) (Sociology 111). Introduction to Global Change-Part II
Prerequisite: None. (4 credits)
An introduction to the evolution of life and the human species on earth, with focus on problems of global change produced by recent human advances in technology and institutions.

200 Level Courses

SPACE 204 (ASTRO 204) (EARTH 204). The Planets: Their Geology and Climates
Prerequisite: None. (3 credits)
Structure, composition and evolutionary history of the surfaces and atmospheres of the planets and their satellites, with special emphasis given to comparative aspects of geology and climatology. Intended for non-science majors with a background in high school math and science.

SPACE 205. Mathematics of Rocket Science
Prerequisite: None. (1 credit) 
This class delves into the mathematics and computer programming involved in launching a satellite into orbit, changing orbits, and planetary and lunar missions.

CLIMATE 280 (SPACE 280). Undergraduate Research Experience
Prerequisites: None. (1-4 credits)
Individual or group research experience in atmospheric and space sciences. The Individual or group research experience in atmospheric and space sciences. The program of work is arranged at the beginning of the semester by mutual agreement between the student and a faculty member. Written and/or oral reports will be required.

300 Level Courses

CLIMATE 300 (SPACE 300). Global Environmental Impact of Technological Change
Advised Prerequisite: CHEM 130, MATH 116. (3 credits)
This course provides a scientific exploration of the unexpected global environmental side effects of technological innovation. Case studies are presented and discussed illustrating how technological advances can sometimes produce unexpected and undesirable environmental results. Lessons learned from previous environmental crises including new tools for assessing risk are discussed and applied.

CLIMATE 320. (SPACE 320) (EARTH 320) Earth System Evolution
Advised Prerequisites: MATH 115, MATH 116. Minimum grade of "C" for advised prerequisites. (3 credits)
Introduction to the physics and chemistry of Earth and space. Gravitational energy, radiative energy, Earth's energy budget and Earth tectonics are discussed along with chemical evolution and biogeochemical cycles. The connections among the carbon cycle, silicate weathering and the natural greenhouse effect are discussed.

CLIMATE 321 (SPACE 321) (EARTH 321). Earth and Space Systems Dynamics
Advised Prerequisites: CLIMATE/SPACE 320. Preceded or accompanied by MATH 215 and MATH 216. (3 credits)
This course will describe the major wind systems and ocean currents that are important to climate studies. The primary equations will be developed and simple solutions derived that will explain many of these motions. The relations among the dynamics and other parameters in the climate system will be illustrated by examples from both paleo and present day systems.

CLIMATE 323 (SPACE 323) (EARTH 323). Earth System Analysis
Prerequisite: none. (4 credits)
Introduction to the analysis of Earth and Atmospheric Science Systems. Topics include linear systems, harmonic analysis, sampling theory and statistical error analysis. Lectures emphasize underlying mathematical concepts. Labs emphasize application of mathematical methods to analysis of field data in a computer programming environment. Applications include turbulent air motion in the planetary boundary layer, cloud and precipitation microphysical composition, oceanic wave propagation, stratospheric ozone depletion and satellite remote sensing.

CLIIMATE 350 (SPACE 350) (EARTH 350). Atmospheric Thermodynamics
Prerequisite: MATH 216 or equivalent. Minimum grade of "C" required for enforced prerequisite. (3 credits)
Fundamentals of thermodynamics are presented, including the First, Second and Third Laws, ideal gases, adiabatic processes, phase changes, vapor pressure, humidity and atmospheric stability. The Kinetic Theory of Gases provides a molecular perspective on the various forms of atmospheric water substance and on macroscopic phenomenology in general.

SPACE 370 (EARTH 370). Solar Terrestrial Relations
Prerequisite: MATH 216, Physics 240. (4 credits)
Introduction to solar terrestrial relations with an overview of solar radiation and its variability on all time-scales. The effects of this variability on the near-Earth space environment and upper atmosphere are considered, as well as effects on the lower and middle atmosphere with connections to weather and climate. Subjects are approached through extensive data analysis, including weekly computer lab sessions.

CLIMATE 380 (SPACE 380) (EARTH 381). Introduction to Atmospheric Radiation
Prerequisite: MATH 216 or equivalent. Minimum grade of "C" required for enforced prerequisite. (3 credits)
Basic concepts and processes of radiative transfer including radiometric quantities, electromagnetic spectrum, absorption, emission and scattering. The physics laws governing these processes including the Planck Law and the Kirchhoff Law. Radiative properties of atmospheric constituents. Reflection and refraction. Introductory-level descriptions of relevant applications in atmospheric sciences and climate physics.

CLIMATE 381 (SPACE 381). Undergraduate Research Experience II
Prerequisites: CLIMATE 280, SPACE 280 or junior/senior standing. (1-4 credits)
Individual or group research experience in atmospheric, space science or space technology. The program of work is arranged at the beginning of the semester by mutual agreement between the student and a faculty member. Written and/or oral reports will be required.

400 Level Courses

CLIMATE 401 (EARTH 401). Geophysical Fluid Dynamics
Advised Prerequisites: Physics 240, MATH 215, MATH 216, CLIMATE 323, SPACE 323. (4 credits)
Dynamics of the oceans and atmosphere. Equations of motion in spherical coordinates, beta-plane approximation, wave properties in the oceans and atmosphere.

CLIMATE 405 (SPACE 405). Special Topics
Prerequisite: None. (1-4 credits)
Advances in specific fields of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Sciences as revealed by recent research.

CLIMATE 407 (SPACE 407). Mathematical Methods in Geophysics
Advised Prerequisite: MATH 216. (4 credits)
Vector calculus and Cartesian tensors; Sturm-Liouville systems, Green's Functions and solution of boundary value problems; Fourier series,
Fourier and Laplace transforms, discrete Fourier transform, fast Fourier transforms, and energy spectra and singular perturbation theory.

CLIMATE 410. Earth System Modeling
Advised Prerequisites: CLIMATE 320, CLIMATE 321, SPACE 320, SPACE 321. (4 credits)
Introduction to Earth System Modeling; discussion of energy balance models, carbon cycle models and atmospheric chemistry models with multiple time scales; methods for numerical solution and practice building and analyzing results from models.

CLIMATE 411 (EARTH 411). Cloud and Precipitation Processes
Advised Prerequisites: CLIMATE 350, SPACE 350, MATH 216. (3 credits)
The special nature of water substance; nucleation of phase changes in the free atmosphere; the structure and content of clouds; the development of physical characteristics of precipitation; and the dynamics of rain systems.

CLIMATE 414 (EARTH 414). Weather Systems
Advised Prerequisites: CLIMATE 350, SPACE 350, CLIMATE 401 or CLIMATE 551. (3 credits)
Introduction to the basic characteristics, thermodynamics and dynamics of atmospheric weather systems on Earth and other planets. The students are exposed to observations of weather systems while reviewing non-dimensional analysis, dynamics and thermodynamics. Weather systems on earth are compared to that of other planets and analytical tools are used to gain insights into their basic physics.

CLIMATE 420 (NAVARCH 420) (ENSCEN 420). Environmental Ocean Dynamics
Prerequisite: NAVARCH 320 or AOSS 305 or CEE 325. (4 credits)
Physical conditions and physical processes of the oceans; integration of observations into comprehensive descriptions and explanations of oceanic phenomena. Emphasis on wave and current prediction, optical and acoustical properties of sea water, currents, tides, waves and pollutant transport.

AOSS 421. (EARTH 421) (ENVIRON 426). Introduction of Physical Oceanography
Prerequisite: Introductory science course, MATH 115 and MATH 116 or permission of instructor. (3 credits)
This course examines the fundamentals of physical oceanography; the physical properties of the ocean and water masses; circulation of the atmosphere; wind-driven and buoyancy-driven ocean circulation; tides; surface and internal waves; eddies; and mixing.

CLIMATE 422 (EARTH 423). Boundary Layer Meteorology
Advised Prerequisite: CLIMATE 350, SPACE 350 or equivalent. (4 credits)
Explores processes in the atmospheric boundary layer, which plays an important role in the exchange of energy, mass and momentum between land and atmosphere. Topics include applications of governing atmospheric equations, atmospheric turbulence, turbulent kinetic energy, the surface energy balance and the collection and analysis of field flux tower data.

CLIMATE 431 (SPACE 431) (EECS 430). Radiowave Propagation and Link Design
Prerequisite: Physics 405 or EECS 330. (4 credits)
Fundamentals of electromagnetic propagation and radiation; radiowave propagation in different environments (near Earth, troposphere, ionosphere, indoor and urban); antenna parameters; practical antennas; link analysis; system noise; fading and multipath interference. Course includes lectures, labs and a project in which student teams develop and implement practical wireless systems.

CLIMATE 440 (EARTH 454). Meteorological Analysis Laboratory
Advised Prerequisites: CLIMATE 350, SPACE 350, CLIMATE 401. (4 credits)
This course provides an introduction into the analysis of both surface-based and remotely-sensed meteorological data. The development and application of operational numerical forecast models will be discussed. Techniques for the prediction of both synoptic and mesoscale meteorological phenomena will also be presented.

CLIMATE 441. Meteorology and Climate of the Rockies
Advised Prerequisite: CLIMATE/SPACE 320, CLIMATE/SPACE 321, CLIMATE/SPACE 323. (3 credits)
This course introduces principles of atmospheric and environmental sciences using the Rocky Mountains as a field laboratory. Students will develop an understanding of meteorological processes to explain variations in microclimates, and the importance of mountainous regions on the earth's climate. Students will gain field-based knowledge of mountain climates and instrumentation.

CLIMATE 442 (ENSCEN 442). Oceanic Dynamics I
Prerequisite: CLIMATE 401. (3 credits)
Wave motions; group velocity and dispersion. Gravity waves, wave statistics and prediction methods; long period waves; the tides. Steady state circulation, including theories of boundary currents and the thermocline.

CLIMATE 450 (SPACE 450). Geophysical Electromagnetics
Advised Prerequisite: MATH 216. (4 credits)
The fundamentals of electricity, magnetism and electrodynamics in the context of the Earth. The first segment will cover electrostatics, the electric structure and circuit of the Earth, electricity in clouds and lightning. The second segment will cover magnetostatics, currents, the magnetic field and magnetic dynamo of the Earth, and the Earth's magnetosphere. The third segment will cover electrodynamics, electromagnetic waves, radiation in the Earth environment, waveguides and radiation from sources.

CLIMATE 451 (ENSCEN 451) (EARTH 457). Atmospheric Dynamics I
Advised Prerequisites: CLIMATE 401 or MATH 450. (4 credits)
Quasi-geostrophic energetics; fronts; the mean circulation; planetary and equatorial waves: overview of the dynamics of the middle atmosphere; wave-mean flow interaction; spectral methods; and tropical meteorology.

CLIMATE 462. Instrumentation for Atmospheric and Space Sciences
Advised Prerequisite: CLIMATE 350, SPACE 350. (4 Credits)
Introduction to fundamentals of atmospheric, space-based and meteorological instrumentation. Includes basics of electronic sensors, optics, lasers, radar, data acquisition/management, error analysis and data presentation. Consists of two lectures and one lab each week, and a team-based term project.

CLIMATE 463 (ENSCEN 463). Air Pollution Meteorology
Prerequisite: MATH 215. (3 credits)
Weather and motion systems of the atmosphere; topographic influences on winds, atmospheric stability and inversions; atmospheric diffusion; natural cleansing processes; meteorological factors in plant location, design and operation.

CLIMATE 466. Carbon-Climate Interaction
Advised Prerequisite: For undergraduates: CLIMATE/SCIENCE 320 and CLIMATE/SCIENCE 321. (3 credits) 
The class will focus on the exchange of carbon among reservoirs in the Earth system -- atmosphere, ocean, lithosphere and biosphere -- and the role of carbon dioxide, CO2, as a greenhouse gas.

CLIMATE 467 (CHEM 467) (EARTH 465) (ENSCEN 467) (Environ 467). Biogeochemical Cycles
Advised prerequisites: MATH 116, CHEM 210, Physics 240. (3 credits)
The biogeochemical cycles of water, carbon, nitrogen and sulfur; the atmosphere and oceans as reservoirs and reaction media; the fate of natural and man-made sources of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur compounds; the interactions among the major biogeochemical cycles and resultant global change; greenhouse gases, acid rain and ozone depletion.

CLIMATE 473. Climate Physics
Advised Prerequisite: Senior or graduate standing in science or engineering (3 credits)
Introduction to physical mechanisms that determine climate, including relevant atmospheric, hydrologic, cryospheric, solar/orbital, volcanic and human processes. Discusses qualitative and descriptive techniques to understand how radiative, thermodynamic and dynamic processes distribute energy throughout the Earth System, drive climate feedbacks and determine the sensitivity of Earth's climate to external perturbations.

CLIMATE 474 (EARTH 474). Ice Sheets, Glaciers and Climate Change
Advised Prerequisite: Math 115 and 116. (3 credits)
The dynamics and mass balance of ice sheets and glaciers introduced along with mathematical theories describing how ice sheets and glaciers flow and current methods of observation. The course integrates lectures, assignments and discussion of journal articles.

CLIMATE 475. (ENSCEN 475) (EARTH 475). Earth System Interactions
Prerequisite: Senior standing in science or engineering. (4 credits)
Students will work on open-ended research problems with mathematical models from Earth System Science. The models may include, for example, surface characteristics, hydrology, solar-land-ocean-atmosphere exchanges and space-based observations. Numerical experiments will promote further understanding and interpretation of earth system interactions, team building and scientific communication.

CLIMATE 476. Ocean Dynamics and Climate
Advised Prerequisite: CLIMATE 401 or CLIMATE 551 or SPACE 551. (4 credits)
Large-scale physical oceanography and the role of the ocean in climate. Theory and observations in the wind-driven and thermohaline circulation, vortices and planetary waves.

SPACE 477. Space Weather Modeling
Prerequisite: SPACE 370. Minimum grade of "C" required for enforced prerequisites. (4 credits)
An introduction to a variety of models of the space environment, including models of the sun, magnetosphere, ring current, ionosphere, thermosphere and ionospheric electrodynamics. Students will learn the origins of different models, what each represents, to run the models and become familiar with the output.

SPACE 478. Engineering for Space Environment
Advised Prerequisite: Senior or graduate standing advised. (4 credits) 
This course will cover the basics of the Sun and the solar wind and their influence on the space environment. In addition, atmospheric effects on spacecraft are considered. We discuss not only the physics of the drivers of space weather, but also the implications for satellite systems and their design and operation.

CLIMATE 479 (ENSCEN 479). Atmospheric Chemistry
Prerequisite: CHEM 130, MATH 216. (4 credits)
Thermochemistry, photochemistry and chemical kinetics of the atmosphere; geochemical cycles, generation of atmospheric layers and effects of pollutants are discussed.

CLIMATE 480 (NRE 480). Climate Change: The Move to Action
Advised Prerequisite: Senior or graduate standing, MATH 216. (3 credits)
All sectors of society are affected by climate change: science, policy, business, economics, public health, energy, ecosystems, environmental engineering, journalism, religion, etc. This course explores the intersections of these communities and exposes students the factual and contextual elements that will allow effective participation in the adaption to climate change.

SPACE 495 (ENSCEN 495). Upper Atmosphere and Ionosphere
Prerequisite: None. (4 credits)
Basic physical and chemical processes important in controlling the upper/middle atmosphere and ionosphere: photochemistry, convection, diffusion, wave activity, ionization, heating and cooling. The terrestrial, as well as planetary atmospheres and ionospheres are to be considered.

CLIMATE 498 (SPACE 498). Practicum in Climate and Space Science 
Prerequisite: Permission of instructor. (1 or 2 credits)
Course may be repeated to a maximum of 8 credit hours. Students taking this course will participate in research and/or engineering tasks. Supervision will be undertaken by faculty and engineers of the Climate & Science department. Reporting requirements include a final written summary. Diverse tasks include aircraft spacecraft and rocket payload design field campaign support calibration simulation test. Students will join an active research program of Climate & Science for a given semester.

CLIMATE 499 (SPACE 499). Directed Study
Prerequisite: Permission of instructor. (1-16 credits)
Offers research or directed study experience for students in an area of interest to the student and faculty member.  An oral presentation and/or written report is due at the end of the term.

SPACE 499 (CLIMATE 499). Directed Study
Prerequisite: Permission of instructor. (1-16 credits) 
Offers research or directed study experience for students in an area of interest to the student and faculty member.  An oral presentation and/or written report is due at the end of the term.

500 Level Courses

CLIMATE 501 (SPACE 501). Seminars in Climate, Atmospheres and Space Sciences
Prerequisite: Graduate Standing. (1 credit)
Current research efforts will be presented by graduate students and faculty dealing with all phases of the climate, atmospheric and space sciences.

CLIMATE 511. Aerosol Physics and Chemistry
Prerequisite: senior or graduate standing (3 credits)
Introduction to fundamental principles and latest developments in aerosol science. The dependence of aerosol composition and size distributions on the underlying atmospheric thermodynamics, dynamics, chemistry and physics will be presented. Recent observations and theoretical treatments are used to illustrate aspects of aerosol science that are poorly quantified at present.

CLIMATE 524 (ENSCEN 524). General Circulation
Prerequisite: previous or concurrent with CLIMATE 401. (3 credits)
Processes that maintain the general circulation of the Earth's atmosphere; the observed general circulation; energetics; balance requirements; comparison of observations with simple theories and results from general circulation model simulations.

CLIMATE 528 (NAVARCH 528) (ENSCEN 529) (SPACE 528). Remote Sensing of Ocean Dynamics
Prerequisite: AOSS 425 (NAVARCH 425) or permission of instructor. (3 credits)
The dynamics of ocean wave motion, both surface and internal waves, and ocean circulation are explored utilizing active and passive remote sensing techniques. Emphasis is placed upon the synoptic perspective of ocean dynamics provided by remote sensing which is not obtainable by conventional means.

CLIMATE 530. Using Climate-Change Knowledge in Planning and Design
Prerequisite: Basic knowledge of climate change and its impact. (2 credits)
This seminar focuses on special topics on the use of climate-change data and knowledge in planning, design, engineering and management. Topics include, for example, uncertainty in the context of decision making, nonstationarity in design and engineering, and vulnerability and risk assessment.

CLIMATE 532 (SPACE 532). Radiative Transfer
Advised Prerequisite: Physics 405. (4 credits)
Physical processes, mathematical representation and numerical modeling of radiative transfer through atmospheres.  Rayleigh and Mie scattering.  Gaseous absorption and emission lines and line broadening.  Numerical considerations and approximations.  Applications include radiative energy balance and global climate, satellite remote sensing of atmospheres, and propagation through ionized media.

SPACE 545. High Energy Density Physics
Prerequisite: MATH 450, Physics 405 & Physics 406. (3 credits)
Introduces students to fundamental tools and discoveries of high-energy density physics, where pressures are above a million atmospheres. Discusses fundamental physical models, equations of state, hydrodynamics including shocks and instabilities, radiation transport, radiation hydrodynamics, experimental technique, inertial fusion, experimental astrophysics and relativistic systems.

AOSS 550 (NA 550). Offshore Engineering I
Prerequisite: NAVARCH 420 (AOSS 420). (3 credits)
Design and analysis requirements of off-shore engineering structures. Hydrodynamic loads on offshore platforms and slender bodies. Marine riser mechanics: dynamics and structural stability. Mooring mechanics: nonlinear stability and design. Vortex induced vibrations: analysis and model testing. Marine renewable energy. Hydrokinetic energy harnessing.

CLIMATE 551 (SPACE 551). Fluid Dynamics for Climate and Space Sciences
Advised prerequisites: MATH 215, MATH 216, and MATH 450. (4 credits)
Covers the fundamentals of fluid dynamics.  The purpose of the course is to provide fundamental grounding in fluid dynamics and in fundamental mathematical technique at the level required to do serious quantitative graduate research that involves fluid dynamics effects.  The emphasis of the examples is on geophysical and space applications.

CLIMATE 555 (SPACE 555). Spectral Methods
Advised prerequisites: MATH 216. ENGR 103. (4 credits)
An introduction to numerical methods based on Fourier Series, Chebyshev polynomials and other orthogonal expansions. Although the necessary theory is developed, the emphasis is on algorithms and practical applications in geophysics and engineering, especially fluid mechanics. Many homework assignments will be actual problem-solving on the computer.

CLIMATE 563 (ENSCEN 563). Air Pollution Dispersion Modeling
Prerequisite: CLIMATE 463. (3 credits)
Principles of modeling air pollution transport and dispersion. Discussion of models for line sources, area sources and point sources. Analysis of individual model data requirements, founding assumptions and inherent limitations. Practical experience using currently operational models.

CLIMATE 564 (ENSCEN 564)(SPACE 564). The Stratosphere and Mesosphere
Prerequisite: CLIMATE 464. (3 credits)
Physical, chemical and dynamical properties of the atmosphere between the tropopause and the turbopause. Among the topics covered are the heat and radiation budgets, atmospheric ozone, stratospheric warmings, the biennial stratospheric oscillation, airglow.

CLIMATE 565 (SPACE 565). Planetary Science 
Advised prerequisite: Graduate standing. (4 credits)
Solar system formation; giant planets and origin of their atmospheres; biogeochemical evolution of terrestrial planet atmospheres; radiative transfer, internal energy and thermal structure; thermochemical cloud formation; radiative and charged particle energetic processes for neutrals and ions; origin of satellite atmospheres; extrasolar planets; life in the universe; planetary exploration.

CLIMATE 567 (CHEM 567). Chemical Kinetics
Prerequisite: CHEM 461 or AOSS 479. (3 credits)
A general course in chemical kinetics, useful for any branch of chemistry where reaction rates and mechanisms are important. Scope of subject matter: practical analysis of chemical reaction rates and mechanisms, theoretical concepts relating to gas and solution phase reactions.

CLIMATE 574 (AEROSP 574). Introduction to Space Physics
Prerequisite: Senior or Graduate Standing. (4 credits)
A graduate level introduction to physical and aeronomical processes in the space environment. Discussion of theoretical tools, the Sun, solar wind, heliosphere, magnetosphere, ionosphere and the upper atmosphere. Spacecraft interaction with radiation, spacecraft-plasma interactions.

CLIMATE 575 (ENSCEN 575). Air Pollution Monitoring
Advised prerequisite: CLIMATE 463, CLIMATE 578, NRE 538 (previously or concurrently). (3 credits)
A practical introduction to the fundamentals of gas and aerosol measurements with a focus on ozone and acidic gases, their precursors and aerosols; operation of the suite of instruments, detection and sampling techniques and calibration practices. An important feature will be team-oriented tasks involving air quality monitoring.

CLIMATE 576 (ENSCEN 576). Air Quality Field Project
Advised prerequisite: CLIMATE 578, NRE 538, CLIMATE 575, or CLIMATE 563. (4 credits)
Practical experience in all aspects of air quality field measurements from the design and planning stage through implementation and data analysis and interpretation. Emphasis on research design, sampling, data management systems, sample tracking, computerized data acquisition and processing, error analysis and reporting; team-oriented practicum for modelers and experimentalists.

CLIMATE 578 (ENSCEN 578). Air Pollution Chemistry
Prerequisite: CLIMATE 479 or CHEM 365. (3 credits)
Tropospheric and stratospheric air pollution are discussed following a review of thermochemistry, photochemistry and chemical kinetics. Gaseous and particulate air pollutants are considered in terms of their origins and transformations.

CLIMATE 580 (SPACE 580). Remote Sensing and Geographic Information System Project Laboratory
Prerequisite: MATH 216, Physics 140. (2 credits)
Lectures and hands-on demonstrations train students in acquiring and processing remote sensing and field data using computer based image processing and geographic information systems. Students apply this knowledge in individual and small team projects oriented toward student interests. Research project results are communicated in formal presentations and written reports.

SPACE 581 (AEROSP 581). Space Policy and Management
Prerequisite: Graduate Standing. (3 credits)
The first part of the course will provide detailed information on how space policy is developed in the United States and the international space community and how these policies result in specific missions. The second part will provide detailed information on modern management techniques and processes. Project managers from NASA centers and industry will lecture on the detailed management techniques and processes.

SPACE 582 (AEROSP 582). Spacecraft Technology
Prerequisite: graduate standing. (4 credits)
Systematic and comprehensive review of spacecraft and space mission design and key technologies for space missions. Discussions on project management and the economic and political factors that affect space missions. Specific space mission designs are developed in teams. Students of AEROSP 483/583 choose their projects based on these designs.

SPACE 583 (AEROSP 583). Management of Space Systems Design
Prerequisite: AEROSP/AOSS 582. (4 credits)
Meets with AEROSP 483 (Space System Design), or other senior design course when appropriate topic is chosen. Students in this course lead teams in high level project design of a space system. Modern methods of concurrent engineering manufacturing, marketing and finance, etc., are incorporated.

SPACE 584. Space Instrumentation
Prerequisite: senior or graduate standing. (4 credits)
This class teaches students how to design, build, test and deploy a completely autonomous, sophisticated system that is designed to accomplish a specific task. The primary system is a small-satellite, deployed on a high-altitude balloon. This system involves communication, position tracking, microcontrollers, instruments and a power system.

CLIMATE 585 (SPACE 585). Introduction to Remote Sensing and Inversion Theory
Advised prerequisite: Graduate standing. (3 credits)
Introduction to active (radar and lidar) and passive (thermal emission) visible, infrared and microwave remote sensing. Fundamentals of electromagnetic emission, absorption and scattering. Sensor performance characteristics. Mathematical methods for inversion of integral transforms and ill-conditioned systems of equations commonly encountered in remote sensing applications.

CLIMATE 586. Climate Data Analysis
Prerequisite: graduate standing (3 credits)
Objective methods are introduced for analyzing climate data with inherent spatial and/or temporal correlation scales. These include time series analysis, pattern recognition techniques, regression and linear modeling. The emphases are both the usage of such methods and critical evaluation of literatures that employ them.

CLIMATE 587 (EECS 532) (SPACE 587). Microwave Remote Sensing I: Radiometry
Prerequisite: EECS 330, graduate standing. (3 credits)
Radiative transfer theory: blackbody radiation; microwave radiometry; atmospheric propagation and emission; radiometer receivers; surface and volume scattering and emission; applications to meteorology, oceanography and hydrology.

CLLIMATE 588. Regional Scale Climate
Prerequisite: graduate standing. (4 credits)
Regional scale climate processes are introduced along with the tools needed for their analysis, including downscaling techniques. The course integrates lectures, assigned journal papers and hands-on data analysis. In a course project, students will apply the analytical tools to a subject chosen by the student.

CLIMATE 589. The Art of Climate Modeling
Prerequisite: graduate standing, basic understanding of Atmospheric dynamics and the general circulation of the atmosphere; Unix; higher level programming language; numerical methods. (4 credits)
The course introduces the newest climate modeling techniques by surveying the design decisions in atmospheric General Circulation Models (GCMs), the trends in GCM and dynamical core modeling and how GCMs are coupled. It is built upon hands-on GCM modeling and data projects, journal paper discussions, lectures, shared cyber-infrastructure and computational tools.

SPACE 590. Space Systems Projects
Prerequisite: Graduate standing. (1-4 credits)
Space science and application mission related team project. Student teams will participate in ongoing projects in the Space Physics Research Laboratory in conjunction with industry and government sponsors.

CLIMATE 591. Climate Practicum I
Advised Prerequisite: Senior or graduate standing. (4 credits)
Introduction to individual and team research on real-world problems in the area of applied climate. A mentor from a commercial or governmental laboratory will pose the problem and help to guide the research. Students will learn how to apply knowledge they have already acquired. This course followed by CLIMATE 592.

CLIMATE 592. Climate Practicum II

Prerequisite: Senior or graduate standing and CLIMATE 591. (4 credits)
Introduction to individual and team research on real-world problems in the area of applied climate. On a research project started in CLIMATE 591 and guided by a mentor from a commercial or government laboratory, students will apply the principles of risk analysis and objective assessment of adaptive strategies.

SPACE 595 (EECS 518). Magnetosphere and Solar Wind
Prerequisite: Graduate standing. (3 credits)
General principles of magnetohydrodynamics; theory of the expanding atmosphere; properties of solar wind, interaction of solar wind with the magnetosphere of the Earth and other planets; bow shock and magnetotail, trapped particles, auroras.

SPACE 596. Gaskinetic Theory
Advised prerequisite: Graduate standing. (3 credits)
Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution, kinetic determination of equation of state, specific heats of gases. Dynamics of two-particle collisions. Elementary transport theory, molecular effusion, hydrodynamic transport coefficients, mean free path method. Advanced transport theory, the Boltzmann equation, collision terms, Champman-Enskog transport theory. Aerodynamics of free-molecular flow. Shock waves.

SPACE 597 (AEROSP 597). Fundamentals of Space Plasma Physics
Prerequisite: senior-level statistical physics course. (3 credits)
Basic plasma concepts, Boltzmann equation, higher order moments equations, MHD equations, double adiabatic theory. Plasma expansion to vacuum, transonic flows, solar wind, polar wind. Collisionless shocks, propagating and planetary shocks. Fokker-Planck equation, quasilinear theory, velocity diffusion, cosmic ray transport, shock acceleration. Spacecraft charging, mass loading.

SPACE 598. The Sun and the Heliosphere
Prerequisites: AOSS 464 & Physics 505 or equivalent. (3 credits)
A complete description of the physical processes that govern the behavior of the Sun and the heliosphere with emphasis on recent theoretical and observational results.

600 Level Courses

CLIMATE 605 (SPACE 605). Current Topics in Climate and Space Sciences and Engineering
Prerequisite: None. (1-4 credits)
Advances in specific fields of climate and space sciences, as revealed by recent research. Lecture, discussion and assigned reading.

CLIMATE 606 (SPACE 606). Computer Applications to Geo-Fluid Problems
Advised Prerequisite: CLIMATE 442 or CLIMIATE 451, ENGR 103, MATH 450. (3-4 credits)
Solution of geo-fluid problems by numerical techniques using a digital computer. Lectures, laboratory, exercises using the digital computer.

CLIMATE 651 (SPACE 651). Dynamics of Planetary Atmospheres and the Upper Atmosphere
Advised Prerequisite: CLIMATE 451. (3 credits)
Dynamic meteorology of other planets (Mars, Venus, Jupiter and Titan), the Earth's middle atmosphere and thermosphere. Tides, solitary waves, quasi-geostrophic turbulence and dynamics and chemistry are among the phenomena discussed.

SPACE 690. Thesis/Master of Science
Prerequisite: Permission of instructor; graduate standing. (2-6 credits)
Provides credit for research and writing of a Masters Thesis under direction of a faculty member.

700 Level Courses

CLIMATE 701. Special Problems in Meteorology and Oceanography
Prerequisite: permission of instructor. 
Supervised analysis of selected problems in various areas of meteorology and oceanography.

CLIMATE 747 (SPACE 747). CLaSP Student Seminar
Prerequisite: none. (1 credit)
Students take turns presenting short research seminars (20 minutes) and/or short talks introducing upcoming speakers in CLIMATE/SPACE 749. Some class time will also be devoted to discussions of effective oral and poster presentations and professional ethics.

CLIMATE 749 (SPACE 749). CLaSP Seminar
Prerequisite: none. (1 credit)
Presentations from UM researchers and outside speakers about current research results, covering a broad range of topics in climate, atmosphere and space science. In this class students take turns serving as seminar chair. Questions from students will be handled before those from faculty. Conditions for credit are participation in this seminar and the completion of a short paper in which each student follows up on one talk given as part of this seminar series.

900 Level Courses

CLIMATE 990. (SPACE 990) Dissertation/Pre-Candidate
(2-8 credits); (1-4 credits)
Dissertation work by doctoral student not yet admitted to status as candidate. The defense of the dissertation, that is, the final oral examination, must be held under a full-term candidacy enrollment.

CLIMATE 995. (SPACE 995) `Dissertation/Candidate Graduate School
Prerequisite: authorization for admission as a doctoral candidate. (8 credits); (4 credits)
Election for dissertation work by a doctoral student who has been admitted to candidate status. The defense of the dissertation, that is, the final oral examination, must be held under a full-term candidacy enrollment.